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INTRODUCTION

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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

 TOPOGRAPHY:

           Himachal Pradesh is a small hilly State situated in the northern part of the country. The topography of the State is basically hilly ranging from small to very high hills. Its height ranges from 350 Meters to 6975 meters from main sea level. The State of Himachal Pradesh is situated between 30º 12´40´´ and 33º 12´40´´ north latitude, and 75º 47´55´´ to 79 º 04´22´´ east longitudes. This snowy part of the State is the source of three major rivers Beas, Ravi and Chinab, while Satluj and Yamuna rivers originate from Tibet and Yamnotri, respectively. Its climate conditions vary from extremely hot to serve cold regions. Dharmsala and Palampur in Kanghra district received the highest precipitation next to Chirapunji, while areas like Spiti almost have no rainfall during the winter season.

I.1    AREA:

          Himachal Pradesh became a full-fledged State in January, 1971. Prior to it, it was a Union Territory of India. It is bounded by Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Uttaranchal in the South East, Haryana on the South and Punjab on the West. In the East, it forms India’s border with Tibet. Physiographically the territory can be divided into three zones viz. Outer Himalaya or the Shiwaliks, Inner Himalaya or Mid-Himalaya and the Greater Himalaya or Alpine Zone. The total geographical area of the State is 55673 Sq. Kms.

1.2    CLIMATE:

          As the height of the State from mean sea level ranges from 350 meters to 6975 meters, there is wide variation in the climate of the State. Some parts of the state remains snow bound throughout the year where as other parts enjoy all the six seasons. Because of the peculiar climatic conditions, the State has become an attraction for tourists throughout the year. During winter tourists visit State to enjoy snow and winter sports and during summer tourists visit the State for getting relief from scorching heat of other parts of the country.

1.3       POPULATION:

          As per the provisional population figures of census of 2011, the total population of the State is 68,56,509 persons as against the population of the 60,77,900  persons in Census 2001, showing a growth rate of 12.8 % during 2001-2011, whereas it was 17.53 % during 1991-2001. Out of the total population of 68.56 lakh, 34.74 Lakh are male and remaining 33.82 lakh are females showing a ratio of 974 females per 1000 of males.

1.4    DENSITY OF POPULATION:

          The density of population of H.P as per census 2011 has gone up to 123 persons per sq. km. from 109 persons per Sq. Km. recorded   in the census of 2001.

1.5    LITERACY:

          As per the provisional population figures of census of 2011 the literacy rate of the State is 82.80 where as it was 76.5 % in census 2001. The male literacy rate of the state which was 85.03 %   in census 2001 has increased to the level of 89.53 % and the female literacy has gone up to 75.93 % from 67.04 %, which shows that the literacy rate is constantly increasing over the decade in the state.

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Source: Official Website of MSME, Last Updated on 17 - 11 - 2017

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